Publications

2001

Almeida, O., D. McGrath, and M. Ruffino. 2001. The Commercial Fisheries of the Lower Amazon: An Economic Analysis. Fisheries Management and Ecology 8(3):15-35.

Brown, I.F., K.A. Kainer, A.S. Alechandre, E. do Amaral. 2001. Extractive reserves and participatory research as factors in the biogeochemistry of the Amazon Basin. In The Biogeochemistry of the Amazon Basin , ed. M.E. McClain, R.L. Victoria, and J.E. Richey, pp. 122-138. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bunn, M., J.P. Holdren, A. Macfarlane, S.E. Pickett, A. Suzuki, T. Suzuki, and J. Weeks. 2001. Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: A Safe, Flexible, and Cost-Effective Near-Term Approach to Spent Fuel Management.  Joint Report from Harvard University Project on Managing the Atom and University of Tokyo Project on Sociotechnics of Nuclear Energy, June. 145 pp.

Carvalho, G.O. 2001. Metallurgical Development in the Carajás Area: A Case Study of the Evolution of Environmental Policy Formation in Brazil. Society and Natural Resources 14:127-143.

Carvalho, G. 2001. Sustainable Development: Is it achievable within the existing international political economy context? Sustainable Development 9(2):61-73.

Carvalho, G.O., A.C. Barros, P. Moutinho, and D. Nepstad. 2001. Letter to the Editor: Sensitive development could protect Amazonia instead of destroying it. Nature. 409:131.

*Castro, F., and D. McGrath. 2001. O manejo comunitario de lagos na Amazonia. Parcerias Estrategicas 12 (Setembro 2001): 112-126.

Dail, D.B., E.A. Davidson, and J. Chorover. 2001. Rapid abiotic transformation of nitrate in an acid forest soil. Biogeochemistry 54:131-146.

Davidson, E.A., and A.I. Hirsch. 2001. Fertile forest experiments. Nature 411:431-433.

Davidson, E.A., M.M.C. Bustamante, and A. de Siqueira Pinto. 2001. Emissions of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from soils of native and exotic ecosystems of the Amazon and cerrado regions of Brazil. The Scientific World 1(S2)312-319.

Dias-Filho, M. B., E.A. Davidson, and C.J.R. Carvalho. 2001. Linking biogeochemical cycles to cattle pasture management and sustainability in the Amazon Basin. In: The Biogeochemistry of the Amazon Basin , ed. M.E. McClain, R.L. Victoria, and J.E. Richey, pp. 84-105. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ehrenfeld, J.G., and N.A. Scott. 2001. Invasive species and the soil: effects on organisms and ecosystem processes. Ecological Applications 11:1259-1260.

Erickson, H., M. Keller, and E.A. Davidson. 2001. Nitrogen Oxide Fluxes and Nitrogen Cycling during Postagricultural Succession and Forest Fertilization in the Humid Tropics. Ecosystems 4:67-84.

Gaudinski, J.B., S.E. Trumbore, E.A. Davidson, A.C. Cook, D. Markewitz, and D.D. Richter. 2001. The age of fine-root carbon in three forests of the eastern United States measured by radiocarbon. Oecologia 129:420-429.

Holdren, J.P. 2001. Changing Global and Social Determinants for Nuclear Power. The Bridge 31(3):6-11.

Holdren, J.P. 2001. The Energy-Climate Challenge. Environment June.

Holdren, J.P. 2001. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in the U.S. Energy Future. Invited testimony before the House Science Committee, 28 February.

Holdren, J.P. 2001. Federal Energy R&D for the Challenges of the 21st Century: The 1997 PCAST Report and Its Relevance to S.597. Invited Testimony before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, US Senate, 18 July.

Holdren, J.P. 2001. Meeting the Energy Challenge. Editorial. Science 291:945.

Holdren, J.P. 2001. Searching for a National Energy Policy. Issues in Science and Technology Spring.

Holdren, J.P. 2001. Some Comments On S.1008: Amendments To The Energy Policy Act Of 1992 To Develop The United States Climate Change Response Strategy. Statement for the Record, Hearings before the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, 18 July.

Holdren, J.P., and S.F. Baldwin. 2001. The PCAST Energy Studies: Toward a National Consensus on Energy Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment Policy. Annual Review of Energy and Environment 26:391-434

Houghton, R.A. 2001. Counting terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon. Climatic Change 48:525-534.

Houghton, R.A. 2001. Forests and agriculture. In: Forests in a Full World , G.M. Woodwell, pp. 36-50. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Houghton, R.A. 2001. Forests and the warming of the earth. In: Forests in a Full World , G.M. Woodwell, pp. 9-34. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Houghton, R.A. 2001. Global terrestrial productivity and carbon balance. In: Terrestrial Global Productivity , ed. J. Roy, B. Saugier, and H.A. Mooney, pp. 499-520. San Diego: Academic Press.

Houghton, R.A., and J.L. Hackler. 2001. Carbon flux to the atmosphere from land-use changes: 1850 to 1990. ORNL/CDIAC-131, NDP-050/R1. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.

Houghton, R.A., K.T. Lawrence, J.L. Hackler, and S. Brown. 2001. The spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Brazilian Amazon: a comparison of estimates. Global Change Biology 7:731-746.

Markewitz, D., E.A. Davidson, R.O. Figueiredo, R.L. Victoria, and A.V. Krusche. 2001. Control of cation concentrations in stream waters by surface soil processes in an Amazonian watershed. Nature 410:802-805.

Mendoza, E.R.H., I.F. Brown, D.C. Nepstad, and D. Selhorst. 2001. The impact of accidental fires in southwestern Amazonian agroecosystems and forests. A case study in Acre State, Brazil. 2001 Open Meeting of the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Research Community. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Moreira, A.G. & C.A. Klink. 2001. Biomass allocation and growth of tree seedlings from two contrasting Brazilian savannas. Ecotropicos 13(1):43-51.

Nepstad, D., G. Carvalho, A.C. Barros, A. Alencar, J.P. Capobianco, J. Bishop, P. Moutinho, P. Lefebvre, and U. Lopes da Silva, Jr. 2001. Road paving, fire regime feedbacks, and the future of Amazon forests. Forest Ecology and Management 5524:1-13.

Nepstad, D., P. Moutinho, A. C. Barros, G. Carvalho, A. Alencar, J. Capobianco, and L. Solorzano. Science and the future of Amazon Policy: A response to Laurance et al. Science dEbates, June 2001.

Nepstad, D.C., P. Moutinho, and R.S. Markewitz. 2001. The recovery of biomass, nutrient stocks, and deep-soil functions in secondary forests. In: The Biogeochemistry of the Amazon Basin , ed. M.E. McClain, R.L. Victoria, and J.E. Richey, pp. 139-155. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pacala, S.W., G.C. Hurtt, D. Baker, P. Peylin, R.A. Houghton, R.A. Birdsey, L. Heath, E.T. Sundquist, R.F. Stallard, P. Ciais, P. Moorcroft, J.P. Caspersen, E. Shevliakova, B. Moore, G. Kohlmaier, E. Holland, M. Gloor, M.E. Harmon, S.-M. Fan, J.L. Sarmiento, C.L. Goodale, D. Schimel, and C.B. Field. 2001. Consistent land- and atmosphere-based U.S. carbon sink estimates. Science 292:2316-2320.

Potter, C., E.A. Davidson, D.C. Nepstad, C.R. de Carvalho. 2001. Ecosystem modeling and dynamic effects of deforestation on trace gas fluxes in Amazon tropical forests. Forest Ecology and Management 152:97-117.

Ramakrishna, K. 2001. Needs and constraints of the policy community. Remarks published in Report of the Initial Planning Meeting. Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change--Carbon Management Research Activity, May 29-30, 2000, Tokyo, Japan. Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ministry of the Environment, Japan (CGER-D028-2001).

Ramakrishna, K. 2001. No time for complacency. Earth Times 11/2/01.

Ramakrishna, K. 2001. Reviews of national communications to improve compliance under the Kyoto Protocol. Paper presented at the Open Meeting of the Global Environmental Change Research Community, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 6-8 October 2001.

Ramakrishna, K. 2001. Who needs what to implement the Kyoto Protocol? An assessment of capacity building needs in 33 developing countries. Report by UNITAR with the Consortium for North-South Dialogue on Climate Change.

Restom, T.G., and D. Nepstad. 2001. Contribution of vines to the evapotranspiration of a secondary forest in eastern Amazonia. Plant and Soil 235:155-163.

Ross, D.J., N.A. Scott, K.R. Tate, N.J. Rodda, and J. Townsend. 2001. Root effects on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling in a Pinus radiata D.Don plantation on a coastal sand. Australian Journal of Soil Research 39:1027-1039.

Savage, K.E., and E.A. Davidson. 2001. Interannual variation of soil respiration in two New England forests. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15(2):337-351.

Schimel, D.S., J.I. House, K.A. Hibbard, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, P. Peylin, B.H. Braswell, M.J. Apps, D. Baker, A. Bondeau, J. Canadell, G. Churkina, W. Cramer, A.S. Denning, C.B. Field, P. Friedlingstein, C. Goodale, M. Heimann, R.A. Houghton, J.M. Melillo, B. Moore III, D. Murdiyarso, I. Noble, S.W. Pacala, I.C. Prentice, M.R. Raupach, P.J. Rayner, R.J. Scholes, W.L. Steffen, and C. Wirth. 2001. Recent patterns and mechanisms of carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems. Nature 414:169-172.

Schlesinger, P., and T.A. Stone. 2001. Forest and landcover data of Russia and the former Soviet Union. (Data CD-ROM). Woods Hole, Mass.: Woods Hole Research Center.

Schneider, L.C., A.P. Kinzig, E.D. Larson, and L. A. Solórzano. 2001. Method for spatially explicit calculations of potential biomass and assessment of land availability for biomass energy production in Northeastern Brazil. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 84(3):207-226.

Scott, N.A., G.E. Likens, J.S.Eaton, and T.G.Siccama. 2001. Trace metal loss following whole-tree harvest of a northeastern deciduous forest, U.S.A. Biogeochemistry 54:197-217.

Scott, N.A., S. Saggar, and P.D. McIntosh. 2001. Biogeochemical impact of Hieracium invasion in New Zealand's grazed tussock grasslands: sustainability implications. Ecological Applications 11:1311-1322.

Solórzano, L.A. 2001. Ecosystems of South America. In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity . Ed. S.A. Levin, et al., vol. 5, pp. 327-343. San Diego, CA.: Academic Press.

Woodwell, G.M. 2001. Bush energy policy: misguided in concept, wrong in detail. Remarks. National Press Club, Washington, D.C. 31 May.

Woodwell, G.M. 2001. Fiddling while the world burns. Amicus Journal Spring.

Woodwell, G.M. 2001. Forests in a Full World . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Woodwell, G.M. 2001. Global Science and Government in the New Millennium. Acceptance speech, Volvo Environment Award ceremony, Göteborg, Sweden. 30 Oct.

Woodwell, G.M. 2001. Welcome to a new full world. Remarks at graduation. Eckerd College, St. Petersburg, Fla. 20 May.

2000

Carvalho, G.O. 2000. Metallurgical Development in the Carajás Area: A Case Study of the Evolution of Environmental Policy Formation in Brazil. Society and Natural Resources 14:127-143.

Carvalho, G.O. 2000. The politics of indigenous land rights in Brazil. Bulletin of Latin American Research 19: 461-478.

Cochrane, M.A. 2000. Forest Fire, Deforestation and Landcover Change in the Brazilian Amazon. Proceedings from: Crossing the Millennium: Integrating Spatial Technologies and Ecological Principles for a New Age in Fire Management. Joint Fire Science Conference. Boise, ID, June 15-17, 1999.

Davidson, E.A. 2000. You Can't Eat GNP: Economics as if Ecology Mattered. Perseus. New York.

Davidson, E.A., and L.V. Verchot. 2000. Testing the hole-in-the-pipe model of nitric and nitrous oxide emissions from soils using the TRAGNET database. Global Biogeochemical Cycles . 14(4): 1035.

Davidson, E.A., S.E. Trumbore, and R. Amundson. 2000. Biogeochemistry: Soil warming and organic carbon content. Nature . 408:789-790.

Davidson, E.A., M. Keller, H.E. Erickson, L.V. Verchot, and E. Veldkamp. 2000. Testing a Conceptual Model of Soil Emissions of Nitrous and Nitric Oxides. BioScience 50(8): 667-680.

Davidson, E.A., L.V. Verchot, J.H. Cattânio, I.L. Ackerman, and J.E.M. Carvalho. 2000. Effects of soil water content on soil respiration in forests and cattle pastures of eastern Amazonia. Biogeochemistry 48(1) 53-69.

Holdren, J.P. 2000 . Improving Energy Security and Reducing Greenhouse-Gas Emissions: The Role Of Nuclear Energy. Invited testimony for the House Committee on Science, 25 July.

Holdren, J.P. 2000 . U.S. Vulnerability to Oil-Price Shocks and Supply Constraints.and How to Reduce It. Invited testimony for the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, 24 March.

Holdren, J.P., and K.R. Smith. 2000. Energy, the Environment, and Health. In World Energy Assessment: Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability, 61-110. UN Development Programme, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, and World Energy Council.

Houghton, R.A. 2000. A new estimate of global sources and sinks of carbon from land-use change. EOS 81:19 Supplement S281.

Houghton, R.A. 2000. Emissions of carbon from land-use change. In The Carbon Cycle , ed. T.M.L. Wigley and D.S. Schimel. Stanford: Cambridge University Press.

Houghton, R.A. 2000. Interannual variability in the global carbon cycle. Journal of Geophysical Research. 105(D15): 20,121-20,130.

Houghton, R.A., and J.L. Hackler. 2000. Changes in terrestrial carbon storage in the United States. 1. The roles of agriculture and forestry. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 9:125-144.

Houghton, R.A., J.L. Hackler, and K.T. Lawrence. 2000. Changes in terrestrial carbon storage in the United States. 2. The role of fire and fire management. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 9:145-170.

Houghton, R.A., D.L. Skole, C.A. Nobre, J.L. Hackler, K.T. Lawrence, and W.H. Chomentowski. 2000. Annual fluxes of carbon from deforestation and regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon. Nature 403:301-304.

Moreira, A.G. 2000. Effects of fire protection on savanna structure in Central Brazil. Journal of Biogeography 27:1021-1029

Moreira, M.Z., L.S.L. Sternberg, and D.C. Nepstad. 2000. Vertical patterns of soil water uptake by plants in a primary forest and an abandoned pasture in the eastern Amazon: an isotopic approach. Plant and Soil. 222: 95-107.

Nepstad, D., J.P. Capobianco, A.C. Barros, G. Carvalho, P. Moutinho, U. Lopes, P. Lefebvre, and M. Ernst. 2000. Avança Brasil: Os Custos Ambientais para a Amazônia. (Avança Brasil: The Environmental Costs for Amazonia.) Belém: Gráfica e Editora Alves.

Nepstad, D., A. Veríssimo, P. Moutinho, and C. Nobre. 2000. O empobrecimento oculto da floresta Amazônica. (The hidden impoverishment of Amazon forests.) Ciencia Hoje 27(157): 70-73.

Noble, I., M. Apps, R. Houghton, D. Lashof, W. Makundi, D. Murdiyarso, B. Murray, W. Sombroek, and R. Valentini. 2000. Implications of different definitions and generic issues. In Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry: A Special Report of the IPCC , ed. R.T. Watson, I.R. Noble, B. Bolin, N.H. Ravindranath, D.J. Verardo, and D.J. Dokken, 53-126. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ramakrishna, K., B. Bamberger, and L. Jacobsen, eds. 2000. Asia Looking Ahead: Initial Stages of National Communications Reporting . Woods Hole, MA: Woods Hole Research Center.

Ramakrishna, K., and G.M. Woodwell. 2000. Clarity on global warming. Christian Science Monitor. Opinion. Sept. 14.

Salimon, C., and I.F. Brown. 2000. Secondary Forests in Western Amazonia: significant sinks for carbon released from deforestation? Interciencia. 25(4):198-202.

Schwartzman, S., A. Moreira, and D. Nepstad. 2000. Rethinking conservation of tropical forests: perils in parks. Conservation Biology 14(5): 1350-1358.

Schwartzman, S., D. Nepstad, and A. Moreira. 2000. Arguing Tropical Forest Conservation: People versus Parks. Conservation Biology. 14(5): 1370-1374.

Stone, T.A. 2000. A Changing Landscape. GEOWorld. February.

Stone, T.A. 2000. Losing Cape Cod: Land use changes over 40 years. Woods Hole Research Center. Woods Hole, MA.

Stone, T. A., R. A. Houghton, and P. Schlesinger. 2000. A Digital Land Cover Map of the Former Soviet Union Based Upon a Time Series of 15 km Resolution NOAA AVHRR Data. International Boreal Forest Research Association 1997, Duluth, Symposium Proceedings.

Stone, T.A, P. Schlesinger, and V. A. Alexeyev. 2000. A Spatially Explicit Map of Forest Stand Carbon for Russia: A First Approximation. International Boreal Forest Research Association, 1997, Duluth, Symposium Proceedings.

Stone, T.A., I.C.G. Vieira, and A.S. de Almeida, 2000. Landscape dynamics in areas of slash and burn agriculture in eastern Amazonia based on multi-temporal analysis of landsat data. Poster presentation. June 26-29, LBA, Belem, Brazil.

Uhl, C., and D. Nepstad. 2000. Amazonia at the millennium. Interciência 25(3): 159-164.

Verchot, L.V., Davidson, E.A., Cattânio, J.H., and I.L. Ackerman. 2000. Land-Use Change and Biogeochemical Controls of Methane Fluxes in Soils of Eastern Amazonia. Ecosystems 3:41-56.

Volokitina, A.V., T. A. Stone, P. Schlesinger, and M.A. Sofronov. 2000. Medium-Scale Vegetation Fuel Mapping in the Lake Baikal Basin. Proceedings from: Crossing the Millennium: Integrating Spatial Technologies and Ecological Principles for a New Age of Fire Management. Joint Fire Science Conference. June 15-17, 1999, Boise, Idaho.

WinklerPrins, A., and D. McGrath. 2000. Smallholder agriculture along the lower Amazon floodplain. PLEC News and Views, Australia, 16:34-42.

Woodwell, G.M. 2000. Ecology and Economics: In the Public Interest. In: Davidson, E.A. You Can't Eat GNP: Economics as if Ecology Mattered. Perseus. New York.

Woodwell, G.M. 2000. Letter to the Editor. Regulation, not private enterprise, is the key to a healthy environment. Nature 405:613.

Woodwell, G.M. 2000. National Policy Framework for Integrated Land Use, Forests and Environment. Remarks at UNEP: Eighth Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, United Nations, N.Y. April 26.

Woodwell, G.M. 2000. Review of J.R. Clark. 1998. Coastal Seas: The Conservation Challenge . Blackwell Science. Environmental Conservation 27(2):222.

Woodwell, G.M. 2000. Review of J.R. Fleming. 1998. Historical Perspectives on Climate Change , Oxford University Press. Quarterly Review of Biology 75(1).

Woodwell, G.M. 2000. Review of W.H. Drury. 1998. Chance and Change: Ecology for Conservationists. J.G.T. Anderson, Ed. University of California Press. Environmental Conservation 27(2):222.

Woodwell, G.M. 2000. Science and the Public Trust in a Full World: Function and Dysfunction in Science and the Biosphere. In Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World , ed. Raven, P. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C.

Woodwell, G.M. and P.R. Epstein, M.D. 2000. Letter to the Editor. Science shows global warming is a real threat. USA Today . January 5.

1999

Brown, I.F., C.A. Llerena, B.M.G. Esteves, M. de F. A. Bigi, J. de S. Nogueira, and F.K. de Souza. 1999. Land-use and global environmental change in southwestern Amazonia: education and research challenges for regional universities. Extended Abstracts. 3rd Symposium on Environmental Geochemistry in Tropical Countries. Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

de Camargo, P.B., S.E. Trumbore, L.A. Martinelli, E.A. Davidson, D.C. Nepstad, and R.L. Victoria. Soil carbon dynamics in regrowing forest of eastern Amazonia. Global Change Biology 5 .

Carvalho, F.M.M. de, and I.F. Brown. 1999. Polarization of biotic and economic wealth: the world, the tropics and Brazil. International Journal for Environment and Pollution 6(2)

Carvalho, G. 1999. Hydroelectric Development and Road Paving in Brazil's Transamazon Area. Journal of Environment and Development Dec. 8 (4) 397-406.

Cochrane, M.A., A. Alencar, M.D. Schulze, C.M. Souza Jr., D.C. Nepstad, P. Lefebvre, and E.A. Davidson. 1999. Positive Feedbacks in the Fire Dynamic of Closed Canopy Tropical Forests. Science 284: 1832-1835.

Cochrane, M.A., and M.D. Schulze. 1999. Fire as a recurrent event in tropical forests of the eastern Amazon: effects on forest structure, biomass, and species composition. Biotropica 31(1): 2-16.

Holdren, J.P., et al. 1999. Powerful Partnerships: The Federal Role in International Cooperation on Energy Innovation. Report of a PCAST Panel, President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology, Executive Office of the President of the United States, June.

Hollinger, D.Y., S.M. Goltz, E.A..Davidson, J.T. Lee, K. Tu, and H.T. Valentine. 1999. Seasonal patterns and environmental control of carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange in an ecotonal boreal forest. Global Change Biology 5: 891-902.

Houghton, R.A. 1999. The annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use 1850-1990. Tellus 51B:298-313.

Houghton, R.A. 1999. Ecosystem metabolism. In: Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. (D.E.Alexander and R.W. Fairbridge, editors.) Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 172-175.

Houghton, R.A. 1999. Greenhouse effect. In: Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. (D.E. Alexander and R.W. Fairbridge, editors.) Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 303-306.

Houghton, R.A., and J.L. Hackler. 1999. Emissions of carbon from forestry and land-use change in tropical Asia. Global Change Biology 5:481-492.

Houghton, R.A., J.L. Hackler, and K.T. Lawrence. 1999. The U.S. carbon budget: contributions from land-use change. Science 285:574-578.

Houghton, R.A. and K. Ramakrishna. 1999. A Review of National Emissions Inventories from Select Non-Annex I Countries: Implications for Counting Sources and Sinks of Carbon. Annnual Review of Energy and Environment, vol. 24.

Moomaw, W., K. Ramakrishna, K. Gallagher, and T. Fried. 1999. The Kyoto Protocol: A Blueprint for Sustainable Development. Journal of Environment and Development , 8(1).

Moreira, A.G. 1999. Climate Change and Brazilian Ecosystems-Brazil's path to global leadership and the means to create sustainable development and large-scale conservation in the Amazon. Statement prepared for the President of Brazil.

*Moreira, A.G. 1999. Novos riscos de incêndio em Roraima. Parabólicas 6(48):5.

*Moreira, A.G. 1999. Políticas públicas e uso do fogo na Amazônia: Soluções possíveis. Terra das Águas - revista de estudos amazônicos , 1(1):217-221.

Nepstad, D., A. Moreira, and A. Alencar. 1999. Flames in the Rainforest: Origins, Impacts and Alternatives to Amazon Fire. Pilot Program for the Conservation of the Rainforests of Brazil, World Bank. 140 pp.

Nepstad, D.C., A. Verissimo, A. Alencar, C. Nobre, E. Lima, P. Lefebvre, P. Schlesinger, C. Potter, P. Moutinho, E. Mendoza, M. Cochrane, and V. Brooks. 1999. Large-scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire. Nature 398: 505-508.

Ramakrishna, K. 1999. Kyoto and the Developing World: Why Kyoto treats developing countries differently: popular (U.S.) misconceptions. Foreign Service Journal 76(3): 36-39.

Veldkamp, E., E.A. Davidson, H. Erickson, M. Keller, and A. Weitz. 1999. Soil nitrogen cycling and nitrogen oxide emissions along a pasture chronosequence in the humid tropics of Costa Rica. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31:387-394.

Verchot, L.V., E.A. Davidson, J.H. Cattânio, I.L. Ackerman, H.E. Erickson, and M. Keller. 1999. Land use change and biogeochemical controls of nitrogen oxide emissions from soils in eastern Amazonia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 13:31-46.

Woodwell, G.M. 1999. Letter to the Editor. Global warming is a threat. Oberlin News-Tribune. Oberlin, OH. November 30.

Woodwell, G.M. 1999. Review of Protection of Global Diversity: Converging Strategies , ed. L.D. Guruswamy and J.A. McNeely. Duke University Press. Durham, NC.

Woods Hole Research Center. 1999. Our Forests.Our Future: Report of the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Woods Hole Research Center. 1999. Our Forests.Our Future: Summary Report of the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development. International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.